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Respected Guruji , Sat-Sat Pranam and  Namaskar

 

We feel glad ,proud and previliged to have blessing on us and to have a place in your feet .

With Warm regards

Sukhvir Sangwan and Rakesh Kumar from India


By Dr.Satish Prakash


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Aryasamajtoday is under the spiritual leadership of Satish Prakash, PhD., Vyakaranacharya. He is the Founder and Executive Director of Maharishi Dayananda Gurukula, NA, Inc. He can be reached at satishprakash@yahoo.com
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Scientific Basis for the Vedic Concept of the Never Ending Cycle of the “Creation/Dissolution” of the Universe   
November 06, 2009 by Shruti Prakash

Is there scientific basis for the Vedic Concept of the Never Ending Cycle of the “Creation/Dissolution” of the Universe?

 

Answer:

Yes – there is substantial scientific evidence to support the concept of the creation and dissolution of the universe.

 

HOW DID THE UNIVERSE BEGIN?

 

Judeo-Christian theology presents the notion that God created the Universe from non-existence to existence. This means that at one point in time only God existed, and then the world was created “out of nothing”.   This theory further propounds that God made this existence based on his very command.

 

Swami Dayananda has vigorously opposed this concept of “creating something out of nothing" as absurd.  There is a logical flaw to the statement (equivalent to a contradiction of terms) in that nothing becomes something.

 

In fundamental Vedic doctrine (Satyaarth Prakash Chapter 8), we understand that God, Soul and the Universe are distinct and eternal – meaning that these three entities always existed – a blog entry is under preparation to discuss the concept in greater detail.  Let us focus on the Universe as this is the subject of discussion.

 

All matter (the Universe) is subject to change.  Scientifically speaking changes in matter simply results in changing the “form” of matter – nothing is really destroyed – the quantity of matter is not added to or subtracted from. A Grade 12 chemistry student understands that in a chemical reaction there is a rule which is never broken – matter is neither created nor destroyed. Alternatively stated, this is often referred to as the Law of Conservation of Matter.

 

When this Grade 12 student enters university, s/he is exposed to nuclear reactions (in addition to what s/he already knows about chemical reactions) and further understands that when you take the total amount of matter and energy in the Universe (on earth, in the sky, in space, in the sun, in other planets, in other galaxies, in the WHOLE wide universe), the total amount of matter+ energy is fixed – nothing can be created or destroyed. This is a First Law of “Thermodynamics” (Science) – which is never violated. See reference (1) – Law of Conservation of Matter and Energy. This is first year University Knowledge (US) – Science and Engineering students study this between ages 17-19 years old – students outside of North America study this earlier (closer to age 17-18)

 

Swami Dayananda’s genius interpretation of the Vedas has given us the concept that the Universe was never created - it always existed, it is eternal – nothing can be added to it or removed – Chapter 8 Satyaarth Prakash.

 

Let me restate this – for clarity purposes:

·         Science/Thermodynamics says: The sum of Matter + Energy is fixed – nothing in the Universe can be “created/added or destroyed/subtracted”

·         Swami Dayananda states (thru interpretation of the Vedas): the Universe was never created – it is eternal – nothing can be added or removed from the Universe – Chapter 8 – Satyaarth Prakash

·         By comparison – Judeo Christian theology states: the Universe came from “non-existence (nothing) to existence (something) – meaning: MATTER IS CREATED/ADDED.

 

 

The above is clearly saying that the Vedic concept of the “Eternal Existence of the Universe” has sound scientific basis – in fact, there exists a sharp agreement.

 

This leads us to the next question – if the Universe was never created and cannot be added to or subtracted from – then what kind of changes are exerted on the Universe?

 

HOW IS THE UNIVERSE CHANGING?

 

Judeo Christian doctrine purports that the end of the world is coming – meaning the Universe will move from “existence” to “non-existence” – from “something – what it is today” to “nothing”. Moreover this change is somewhat “imminent”

 

Chapter 8 of the Satyaarth Prakash presents the concept that the Universe will eventually revert to a “chaotic”, dormant existence and will go into a “deep sleep” – CHAOTIC EXISTENCE- and then emerge again into what we know the universe today – STRUCTURED EXISTENCE. These are simply changes - “a great rhythmic cycle of “creation – structured existence” and dissolution – chaotic existence”.

 

This Great Cycle is Never-Ending.

 

 

What does science have to say about how the Universe is changing?

 

There is sharp agreement between Science and the postulations of Swami Dayananda as presented in Chapter 8 of the Satyaarth Prakash

 

For those of us who do not have a science background – please read a bit carefully. The concept is simple but it is wrapped in some technical terms.

 

Entropy defined – a quick Google search will provide you with a good understanding of the term entropy

Here is an example of a web definition

en·tro·py

n. pl. en·tro·pies

1. Symbol S For a closed thermodynamic system, a quantitative measure of the amount of thermal energy not available to do work.

2. A measure of the disorder or randomness in a closed system.

3. The tendency for all matter and energy in the universe to evolve toward a state of inert uniformity.

4. Inevitable and steady deterioration of a system.

 

Idea 1:

Simply put – entropy is a measure of the disorder, randomness, chaos, inertness, useless /dormant energy.

The more entropy there is, the more randomness, chaos, disorder, more useless energy (energy not available to do work)

 

Note to reader – see the connection starting to build between entropy (disorder) and Swamiji’s  “dissolved/chaotic existence”

 

Idea 2:

 

Anything that occurs naturally in the Universe increases entropy (disorder, chaos, useless energy)

This is called the Second Law of Thermodynamics – see reference (3).

All energy transactions/conversions results in an increase of entropy (chaos) when ever any natural event occur!

Example:

·         When the wind blows, more disorder, more useless energy is created in the Universe

·         When a person walks, the same is true

·         When a person eats, when the earth revolves around the sun, when waves move in the ocean, when the sun shines, when there is a storm of any kind, volcanoes,  when all things occur naturally – absolutely no exception, entropy (disorder) increases in the Universe!

 

The Universe exists as it is today because energy is continuously being converted from one form to another – this is a continuing process. If this ongoing natural energy conversions stop, the world ceases to exist as we know it today. With each unit of energy conversion/transaction, “some useful” energy is lost to “useless energy – called entropy”. THIS IS A SCIENTIFIC LAW – cannot be broken.

 

 

Idea 3:

 

Science postulates that there will come a time when there is “equilibrium of Energy VS Entropy"– a sort of equality of Useful Energy (available to do work in the Universe) VS Useless Energy (disorder, chaos, inertness) – at this point – natural energy transactions (conversion of energy) will cease to occur – there will be no driving force to make it happen.  At this point, Universe will cease to exist as we know it – “it will be dormant, inert and chaotic , which is equivalent to the CHAOTIC EXISTENCE referenced in Chapter 8 of the Satyaarth Prakash”

 

Recall: The Satyaarth Prakash – “Chaotic Existence” =  dormant, deep sleep

 

Authors Note: There is sharp agreement with Chapter 8 of Satyaarth Prakash and the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics.

 

 

I have provided some additional discussion items for the enthused reader. 

 

Additional Discussion:

 

Definition of Entropy:

·         The tendency for all matter and energy in the universe is to evolve toward a state of inert uniformity -Reference (2)

·         Readers with scientific background, please refer to  the Second Law of Thermodynamics - Reference (3) and Reference (4)

 

 

 

 

 

 

ORDER TO DISORDER

 

The following is an excerpt from Reference (4)

Second Law of Thermodynamics - The Laws of Heat Power
The Second Law of Thermodynamics is one of three Laws of Thermodynamics. The term "thermodynamics" comes from two root words: "thermo," meaning heat, and "dynamic," meaning power. Thus, the Laws of Thermodynamics are the Laws of "Heat Power." As far as we can tell, these Laws are absolute. All things in the observable universe are affected by and obey the Laws of Thermodynamics.

The First Law of Thermodynamics, commonly known as the Law of Conservation of Matter, states that matter/energy cannot be created nor can it be destroyed. The quantity of matter/energy remains the same. It can change from solid to liquid to gas to plasma and back again, but the total amount of matter/energy in the universe remains constant.

Second Law of Thermodynamics - Increased Entropy
The Second Law of Thermodynamics is commonly known as the Law of Increased Entropy. While quantity remains the same (First Law), the quality of matter/energy deteriorates gradually over time. How so? Usable energy is inevitably used for productivity, growth and repair. In the process, usable energy is converted into unusable energy. Thus, usable energy is irretrievably lost in the form of unusable energy.

"Entropy" is defined as a measure of unusable energy within a closed or isolated system (the universe for example). As usable energy decreases and unusable energy increases, "entropy" increases. Entropy is also a gauge of randomness or chaos within a closed system. As usable energy is irretrievably lost, disorganization, randomness and chaos increase.

Second Law of Thermodynamics - In the Beginning...
The implications of the Second Law of Thermodynamics are considerable. The universe is constantly losing usable energy and never gaining. We logically conclude the universe is not eternal (author’s note – with respect to its energy considerations). The universe had a finite beginning -- the moment at which it was at "zero entropy" (its most ordered possible state). Like a wind-up clock, the universe is winding down, as if at one point it was fully wound up and has been winding down ever since. The question is who wound up the clock?

The theological implications are obvious……..

 

DISORDER TO ORDER:

Scientific knowledge in this arena (driving order from disorder) is not clear and is evolving. Please refer to the following resources Referenced (6), (7), (8) and (9).

Finding Order in Chaos: http://plus.maths.org/issue26/features/budd/

 

Chaos Theory: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chaos_theory

Surprising Relationship between Chaos and Order:

http://www.world-science.net/othernews/060426_chaosfrm.htm

The Big Bang Theory– Relationship of Matter and Antimatter

http://www.umich.edu/~gs265/bigbang.htm

 

It is the premise of the Author that the Universe existed in a state of maximum chaotic disorder (entropy rich universe) prior to the Big Bang Event leading to the “creation” of the Universe as we know it today – See Diagram below

Diagram below – Proposing that the Big Bang Event was preceded by a period where-in the Universe existed in a state where matter, energy, anti-matter and entropy all co-existed in an equilibrium resulting in a dormant, chaotic Universe.

 

 

 

CYCLIC UNIVERSE

Scientists are increasingly discussing the idea of the "cyclic universe" - see this link http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/1953244.stm.  Here are some interesting extracts from this interview

  • If the Universe never began, how come it exists?

    It is not a flippant answer to say that just because the Universe exists (as it obviously does because you are reading this), it had to have a beginning. It might have always existed.

  • OK, so if there are Big Bangs, and they are part of an endless cycle, when is the next one?

    If the Universe is indeed accelerating, there won't be another one, unless Steinhardt and Turok are correct. Then eventually the dark energy will change its nature, cause the Universe to become empty and then allow another Big Bang to take place.

Additional article - Recycled Universe - Theory Could Solve Cosmic Mystery - http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/060508_mm_cyclic_universe.html

  • Selected Excerpts:
    • One of the biggest mysteries in cosmology could be explained by a controversial theory in which the universe explodes into existence not just once, but repeatedly in endless cycles of death and rebirth
    • The idea of a cyclic universe, first proposed in 2002 by Steinhardt and Turok, is an alternative .....
    • In a cyclic universe, new matter and energy are created about every trillion years when two sheet-like "branes" collide along an extra dimension of space
    • Because there can be endless cycles, the universe would be far older than the 14.7 billion years that scientists currently estimate
    • The pair estimates that each cycle lasted about a trillion years. During this time, the universe runs its natural course, but all the while matter and energy fans out through space until they are extremely dilute. They are so dilute, in fact, that we would likely see not even a single particle of that early matter and radiation within our horizon-that is, the patch of space we can see," Steinhardt said.
    • Once the universe is emptied out, a weak attractive force brings our universe's two branes together in a cosmic collision. Each collision is essentially a new Big Bang that infuses the aging universe with new matter and energy.

Here is another example of the Cyclic Universe discussed - http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/astronomy/new_universe_020425.html

Selected excerpt:

Here's how it works, and keep in mind we're jumping into the middle of the explanation: A big bang sends everything outward. Matter and radiation develop. Dark energy drives an expansion -- as is presently underway -- that lasts trillions of years. Finally, the matter, radiation, and even black holes are "diluted away," leaving the universe smooth, empty, and flat.

Then everything contracts in a so-called big crunch, and a fresh cycle begins.

From the above, we see scientific parallels with Veda Mantras stating the following:

Reference (5)

·         Rig Veda 10:129:7 – “the Universe is born, lives and is ultimately dissolved

·         Rig Veda 10:129:3 – “before creation, all this was enveloped in darkness, beyond being discerned and was like empty space… Through his endless power, God caused the Universe to evolve from a Primordial Chaotic State to Its visible Cosmic State.

·         Rig Veda 10:121:1 - …  “ He has been existing even before this current Universe was created

 The Vedic Verses above are clearly talking about the CYCLE of Creation/Dissolution of the Universe including concepts associated with the Laws of Thermodynamics.

Author's Note:

  • Laws of Thermodynamics were initially developed within the scientifc community during the mid 1800s
  • The Theory of the Cyclic Universe was first presented in 2002 by physicists from Princeton and Cambridge Universities

  • The Vedas are the OLDEST source of knowledge/books known to man - this is indisputable. Many disagree on what "oldest" means - millions of years or just thousands of years?
  • Facinating!

References:

1

The Law of Conservation of Matter and Energy

http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/Sciences/Chemistry/Generalchemistry/Energy/LawofConservation/LawofConservation.htm

 

First Law of Thermodynamics

 

http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookEner1.html

 

 

2

Definition of Entropy: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/entropy

3

Second Law of Thermodynamics: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_law_of_thermodynamics

 

4

http://www.allaboutscience.org/second-law-of-thermodynamics.htm

5

Dr. Satish Prakash translation of the Satyaarth Prakash Chapter 8 page 52

6

Finding Order in Chaos: http://plus.maths.org/issue26/features/budd/

 

7

Chaos Theory: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chaos_theory

8

Surprising Relationship between Chaos and Order:

http://www.world-science.net/othernews/060426_chaosfrm.htm

9

The Big Bang Theory– Relationship of Matter and Antimatter

http://www.umich.edu/~gs265/bigbang.htm

 

 

  

 

 

Summary:

 

It is truly amazing to know that words in the Vedas – expertly translated by Swami Dayananda –  have such a sharp agreement to the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics and the emerging theories of the Cyclic Nature of the Universe.

 

The strength of the correlation of what Swamiji presented with these scientific concepts is so sharp, that one wonders what other scientific gems  are contained in the Vedas.  It is a pity that the collective intellectual might of Hinduism has not yet compiled a lucid, credible manual of the sum total scientific principles contained in the Vedas.

 

 

I encourage a discussion on this subject – please post a reply below.

 

 

Shruti Prakash is a member of the Arya Samaj Community. He is the author of this Blog entry and his views do not necessarily represent the views of MDG NA Inc.

 

 

 

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